Badria Jaffar, Tadj Oreszczyn and Rokia Raslan
This paper investigates the physical and social determinants of energy use in four case study villas in Kuwait. The investigation consisted of a 12 month mixed-method longitudinal monitoring and surveying study followed by building energy modelling. Monitoring and surveying provided empirical data about household energy use, internal temperatures, building and system characteristics and occupant energy-use behaviours. This data was used to ground models to better predict energy use. Models grounded with empirical data show that space cooling accounts for 50% to 75% of total energy use in villas. Results suggest that drivers of cooling energy are varied, with 30% of cooling energy in some villas attributable to heat gains from appliances. Furthermore, while the study found no distinct reduction in measured and modelled annual energy use intensities of villas with improved levels of efficiency (insulation and double glazing), such measures did contribute to more uniform internal temperatures. The study also identified key occupant energy-consuming behaviours including a tendency not to adjust air conditioning (AC) thermostat settings during periods of summer travel and lack of regular AC maintenance. The approach and findings of the study can inform future studies in Kuwait seeking to understand energy use in a nationally representative sample.
Sweetnam, T., Fell, M., Oikonomou, E., & Oreszczyn, T. 2018. Domestic demand-side response with heat pumps: controls and tariffs. Building Research & Information, 47 (4): 344–361. doi: 10.1080/09613218.2018.1442775Opens in a new tab
Banner photo credit: Alireza Attari on Unsplash